How to Check Oracle Data Files Healthy

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Two ways that you can verify data files, one is using Oracle utility dbverify, the other is RMAN command.

Dbverify

We can use dbv to check specific data file for block healthy.
[oracle@localhost ~] dbv feedback=0 blocksize=8192 file=/oracle/oradata/ORCL/USER01.dbf
...
Page 2760912 is marked corrupt
***
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x4baa20d0 (file 302, block 2760912)
Completely zero block found during dbv:

One dbv command can only verify one data file at a time, if you want to check the whole database, you can use RMAN commands.

RMAN commands

For physical block inspection, you can do this:
RMAN> backup validate database archivelog all;

In the alert log, you might see errors like this:
...
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x4baa20d0 (file 302, block 2760912)
Completely zero block found during backing up datafile
Reread of blocknum=1390758, file=/oracle/oradata/ORCL/USER01.dbf. found same corrupt data
***

For logical structure inspection, you can do this:
RMAN> backup validate check logical database archivelog all;

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