DDLPFILE and SPFILE

The Default Values in “ALTER SYSTEM SET” Statement

Without declaring SCOPE

If you do not specify this clause, then:
  • If a server parameter file was used to start up the database, then BOTH is the default.
  • If a parameter file was used to start up the database, then MEMORY is the default, as well as the only scope you can specify.
Started bySCOPE
spfileBOTH
pfileMEMORY

Without declaring SID

If you do not specify this clause, then:
  • If the instance was started up with a pfile (traditional plain-text initialization parameter file), then Oracle Database assumes the SID of the current instance.
  • If the instance was started up with an spfile (server parameter file), then Oracle Database assumes SID = ‘*’.
Started bySID
spfile* (All instances)
pfile(Current instance)

Without declaring CONTAINER

If you omit this clause, then CONTAINER = CURRENT is the default, not ALL.

For more information, you may refer to this document:
ALTER SYSTEM

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