How to Resolve PartProbe Error: "WARNING: the kernel failed to re-read the partition table on /dev/sda"

In general, the newly created partition, i.e. /dev/sda3 in this case does not show in the device directory immediately and automatically.
[root@test ~]# ll /dev/sd*
brw-rw----. 1 root disk 8, 0 Jul 11 19:30 /dev/sda
brw-rw----. 1 root disk 8, 1 Jul 11 19:21 /dev/sda1
brw-rw----. 1 root disk 8, 2 Jul 11 19:21 /dev/sda2

You have to either reboot or probe all parts by the command partprobe without reboot. (The package name is parted if you want to have it installed)
[root@test ~]# partprobe /dev/sda
Warning: WARNING: the kernel failed to re-read the partition table on /dev/sda (Device or resource busy).  As a result, it may not reflect all of your changes until after reboot.

But sometimes, partprobe may not be functional like the above (especially on EL6), you have to use partx instead, which is the default utility for devices.
[root@test ~]# partx -a /dev/sda
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 1
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 2

Don't worry about the errors, they are minor.

Now, check the block devices again.
[root@test ~]# ll /dev/sd*
brw-rw----. 1 root disk 8, 0 Jul 11 19:30 /dev/sda
brw-rw----. 1 root disk 8, 1 Jul 11 19:21 /dev/sda1
brw-rw----. 1 root disk 8, 2 Jul 11 19:21 /dev/sda2
brw-rw----. 1 root disk 8, 3 Jul 11 19:34 /dev/sda3

Now we have made the OS to recognize the newly created partition online.

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